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elliot-Suchmaschine, Hybrid-Metasuchmaschinen für Web, Videos, Bilder, Jobs, Torrent, Flug, Hotels, Nachrichten, schnelle direkte Ergebnisse. Metager ist eine sogenannte Meta-Suchmaschine. Sie durchsucht automatisch eine ganze Reihe von Web-Suchmaschinen und fasst die. Ihre Suche: Eliot Peper. Unten finden Sie alle Texte aufgeführt, in denen Ihr Suchwort vorkommt. Die zuletzt erschienenen Artikel werden zuerst angezeigt. doch Verfolger wie Bing holen auf: Was haben die Konkurrenten zu bieten? Wo sind sie stärker als der Suchmaschinen-Dominator? Thomas Stearns Eliot (* September in St. Louis, Missouri, Vereinigte Staaten; † 4. Januar in London, England) war ein englischsprachiger Lyriker.

Suchmaschine Eliot

passenden Phrasen einer digitalen Suchmaschine eingegeben, Daten lie— fern, Es ist vielleicht tröstlich, sich dann an die Prophezeiung von T.S. Eliot in. Thomas Stearns Eliot (* September in St. Louis, Missouri, Vereinigte Staaten; † 4. Januar in London, England) war ein englischsprachiger Lyriker. Metager ist eine sogenannte Meta-Suchmaschine. Sie durchsucht automatisch eine ganze Reihe von Web-Suchmaschinen und fasst die. Suchdienste werden im Sprachgebrauch häufig mit Suchmaschinen gleichgestellt (→ Paid Submission, –> Paid Inclusion Eliot, Bernard Shaw, Bertolt Brecht). Corona-Live-Ticker: Ältere Kinder sollen bald wieder in die Kita – Man solle auch nicht über Suchmaschinen nach dem Formular suchen. Bei Instagra. passenden Phrasen einer digitalen Suchmaschine eingegeben, Daten lie— fern, Es ist vielleicht tröstlich, sich dann an die Prophezeiung von T.S. Eliot in. ich hielt die Eliot-NortonVorlesungen –, um die Adressenlisten selbst durchzusehen. Minitel, eine außerordentlich findige Suchmaschine für Adressen und. 2 & 3 Sitzer Sofas online kaufen | Möbel-Suchmaschine | 2 & 3 Sitzer Sofas bei | MÖBEL-SUCHMASCHINE | Angebote von.

Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in , first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum , and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront.

Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi renewed the state of emergency in October for three more months. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east.

An abrupt southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west—east in the north, and north—south in the east.

Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north—south extent. Its east—west extent is limited.

Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are largely north—south environmental differences defined by sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point.

The Dorsal, the eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula in the east.

North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an extension of mountains to the west in Algeria.

The Sahel , a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation.

Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert.

In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles Tunisia's climate is Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers.

The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid , and merges into the Sahara.

A series of salt lakes , known as chotts or shatts , lie in an east—west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria.

Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state , a prime minister as head of government , a unicameral parliament , and a civil law court system.

The Constitution of Tunisia , adopted 26 January , guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam".

In October Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution.

There are now over legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the plus parties extant as of February are small.

The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law , while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law.

A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in , which, among other things, gave women full legal status allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority.

The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally divorce his wife. After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam.

Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged.

For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League , the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now free to operate.

Homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and can be punished by up to three years in prison. The Tunisian regime has been criticised [ by whom? Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population.

In , Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime.

As of [update] , Tunisia had an army of 27, personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. The navy had 4, personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft.

Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,member national guard. The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security.

The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats.

Since January and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response.

Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates Wilaya , which are further divided into " delegations " or " districts " mutamadiyat , and further subdivided into municipalities baladiyats [] and sectors imadats.

Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism.

The agricultural sector accounts for The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery.

Tunisia was in ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum.

The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner.

Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July , although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade.

Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in and therefore was the first non-EU Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU.

Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha.

The project is financed by Tunisian and foreign enterprises. Days before Tunisia's parliamentary elections, the nation finds itself struggling with a sluggish economy.

Nevertheless, Tunisia could not accomplish anything more than freedom and democracy. It still finds itself hanging between inflation and unemployment while looking up to the 6 October elections with hope of a reform.

Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir.

According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries".

Sources of electricity production in Tunisia []. In , a total of 13, GWh was produced in the country. The main field is El Bourma. Oil production began in in Tunisia.

Currently there are 12 oil fields. Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations , to be operational by Both facilities are projected to produce — MW.

France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology.

Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy.

A new airport, Enfidha — Hammamet International Airport opened in The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan.

Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. In , ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector.

Since , ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of water environment and combating pollution. According to the CIA, as of , Tunisia has a population of 11,, inhabitants.

According to the Tunisian census, Tunisia had a population at the time of 3,, residents, of which mainly Berbers and Arabs.

Amazighs are concentrated in the Dahar mountains and on the island of Djerba in the south-east and in the Khroumire mountainous region in the north-west.

That said, an important number of genetic and other historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in Tunisia.

An Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community. Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks , Romans , Phoenicians Punics , Jews , and French settlers.

From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians , Europeans in , [] although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent.

The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2, years. In the Jewish population was an estimated ,, but by only about remained.

The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. There was a continuing inflow of nomadic Arab tribes from Arabia.

According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley.

Arabic is the official language , and Tunisian Arabic , known as Tounsi, [] is the national, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public.

French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. It is widely used in education e.

However, the Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School during the Ottoman rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today, and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets.

Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 35, adherents, [] [] mainly Catholics 22, and to a lesser degree Protestants.

Berber Christians continued to live in some Nefzaoua villages up until the early 15th century [] and the community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century.

One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. The remainder lives on the island of Djerba with 39 synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2, years, [] in Sfax, and in Hammam-Lif.

Many Jews consider it a pilgrimage site, with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from Solomon's temple.

The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion.

The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not only political, but in public life. During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves hijab in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings.

The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance such as those with beards , detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off.

In , the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing".

After the revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading to more freedom in the practice of religion. It has also made room for the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists , who call for a strict interpretation of Sharia law.

Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. In a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during Ramadan; they were convicted of committing "a provocative act of public indecency" and sentenced to month-long jail sentences.

The state in Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used to justify the arrests. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report —9, released by The World Economic Forum.

While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic.

From the age of 7, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 8. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages: general academic and specialized.

The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately , in to , in The gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level in was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER of 1.

In , spending on healthcare accounted for 3. In , there were The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting.

Given its doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of aesthetic Arab-Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture, etc.

After independence in , the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state.

Sadok Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor turns to fantasy.

In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension.

There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of Tunisian and international artists. A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed the "awakening of a nation".

The exposition boasts documents and artifacts from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th century.

Tunisian literature exists in two forms: Arabic and French. Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region.

It is more important in both volume and value than French literature, introduced during the French protectorate from Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi , who has produced more than radio stories, over poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays, [] Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, [] and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad , or Mahmoud Messadi.

As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach.

The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing. The national bibliography lists non-school books published in in Tunisia, with titles in Arabic.

In Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the Tunisian Republic from Arabic to English for the first time in Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded Tunisian book.

At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language.

In " The Rachidia " was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. The founding in of a musical school helped revive Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity.

The institution did not take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. The creation of Radio Tunis in allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works.

On 7 November , President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French.

Before the recent democratic transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the government line report.

Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party then in power were suppressed.

In essence, the media was dominated by state authorities through the Agence Tunis Afrique Presse. This has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly decreased.

Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The premier football league is the " Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1 ".

The Tunisia national handball team has participated in several handball world championships. In , Tunisia came fourth.

The national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and Esperance S. Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player is Wissem Hmam.

In the Handball Championship in Tunis , Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament.

The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup ten times, being the team dominating this competition.

In recent years, Tunisia's national basketball team has emerged as a top side in Africa. The team won the Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in , and In boxing , Victor Perez "Young" was world champion in the flyweight weight class in and In , Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in the Summer Paralympic Games.

She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. Tunisia was classified 14th on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics.

Tunisia was suspended from Davis Cup play for the year , because the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 25 June Country in North Africa. Tunisian Arabic [3] Berber [4] [5] [6] [7] French administrative, commercial and educational.

See also: Etymology of Tunis. Main article: History of Tunisia. Main articles: Capsian culture and Ancient Carthage. Main article: History of medieval Tunisia.

Main article: Ottoman Tunisia. Main article: French protectorate of Tunisia. Main article: History of modern Tunisia. See also: Tunisian Revolution.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Geography of Tunisia. Main article: Politics of Tunisia.

Main article: Human rights in Tunisia. Main article: Tunisian Armed Forces. Main articles: Governorates of Tunisia and Delegations of Tunisia.

Mediterranean sea. Sidi Bouzid. Ben Arous. Main article: Economy of Tunisia. Main article: Tourism in Tunisia.

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Clicking search results means leaving the protection of Startpage. Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo Ashram , p. Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy. Dubey "Integralism the distinctive feature of Sri Aurobindo's philosophy", pp. Indrani Sanyal and Krishna Roy eds.

D K Printworld. New Delhi. Veda and Living Logos. Anthroposophy and Integral Yoga. Lindisfarne Books.

Retrieved 13 April Dalal ed. Retrieved 6 February Sri Aurobindo: A Contemporary Reade 1 ed.

New Delhi: routeledge. Mother's Agenda. Paris: Inst. Satchidanandan Who's who of Indian Writers: supplementary volume. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, p.

Raja , K. New Delhi, Sahitya Akademi. The Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved 16 November The Dawn Horse Magazine. Retrieved 6 March Malkani examined".

Retrieved 13 October Beyond Enlightenment. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. Iyengar, K. Srinivasa [].

Sri Aurobindo: a biography and a history. Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education. Symbolism in the Poetry of Sri Aurobindo.

Abhinav Publications. Kitaeff, Richard. Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna A History of Indian Literature in English. Columbia University Press.

Mishra, Manoj Kumar Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot. Mukherjee, Prithwindra Sri Aurobindo. Satprem Sri Aurobindo, or the Adventure of Consciousness.

Sri Aurobindo: Meri Drishti Mein. New Delhi: Lokbharti Prakashan. New Delhi: HarperCollins. Raychaudhuri, Girijashankar Integral Yoga.

Satprem Champaklal N. Pandit Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya A. Roy Indra Sen Kapali Sastry. Sri Aurobindo Navigational boxes.

Hindu reform movements. Modern Hindu writers to date. Hinduism Hinduism in the West Indian philosophy Indian religions. Rajagopalachari K.

Sethna Amish Tripathi. Eliot R. List of modern Eastern religions writers List of writers on Hinduism. Hinduism Portal India Portal. Indian Independence Movement.

Bhaktavatsalam M. Chidamabaram V. Indian philosophy. Bengali Renaissance. Swami Vivekananda. Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached Atmano mokshartham jagat hitaya cha Bahujana sukhaya bahujana hitaya cha.

Shuddhananda Virajananda Swarupananda Paramananda. Biley Bireswar. WikiProject Commons Wikiquote Wikisource texts.

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Aurobindo Ghose. Disciples Champaklal , N. Pandit , A. Purani , D. Roy , Satprem , Indra Sen. Influenced Mirra Alfassa Auroville. Teachings Integral yoga Intermediate zone Supermind.

Places Matrimandir Pondicherry. Communities Sri Aurobindo Ashram Auroville. Disciples The Mother Champaklal N.

Part of a series on. Samkhya Kapila. Kanada , Prashastapada. Hinduism Other Indian philosophies. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sri Aurobindo.

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Eliot war source Anhänger des Versdramasin dem er die Vorzüge literarischer und musikalischer Werke vereinigt sah. Seine Bühnenwerke Suchmaschine Eliot die Wiederbelebung des poetischen Dramas. Tutanchamun AuГџehen Eliot war eine Annäherung an die Alltagssprache notwendig, um das Theaterpublikum emotional wieder erreichen zu können. Aktuelle Artikel im Überblick:. Dem Drama wandte sich T. Mit 17 Jahren begann er ein Studium in Harvardspäter studierte er an der Sorbonne in Paris Mathematik, Philosophie sowie europäische und asiatische Sprachen. Er lehnte eine gesellschaftliche Ausrichtung an weltlichen Werten weitgehend ab Endspiel Copa America forderte, die Kultur an der Religion auszurichten, da sie in anderer Weise nicht funktionieren könne. Biography portal Philosophy portal Hinduism portal India portal Religion source. In " The Rachidia " was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. See also: Tunisian Revolution. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikiquote Wikivoyage. Ghose had his medical training in Edinburgh Purani, Evening Talks with Sri Aurobindo. RajaK. Alle Events. Google: Website-Vorschau Sprechblasen mit einer Webseitenvorschau erscheinen bei Berührung der Fundstellen und helfen, das optimale Https:// herauszupicken. Ixquick: Ergebnisse Textwerbung gibt es auch bei Ixquick, sie wird aber deutlich als gesponsert hervorgehoben. Anzeige So profitieren Sie vom Digitalisierungsboom Webcast. Nach einem Studienjahr an der Sorbonne und einem Aufenthalt an Suchmaschine Eliot Universität Marburg wanderte Eliot zu Beginn des Ersten Weltkriegs nach London aus und lebte fortan überwiegend dort. Es folgten Die hohlen MännerAschermittwoch und die Vier Quartettedie sein Spätwerk darstellen und dazu beitrugen, dass ihm der Nobelpreis für Literatur verliehen wurde. Alfred Prufrock ; doch der internationale Durchbruch glückte ihm erst mit Das wüste Land, einem der wirkungsgeschichtlich einflussreichsten Gedichte des

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With Startpage. Add to Chrome. He helped establish a series of youth clubs, including the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in Aurobindo attended the Congress meeting headed by Dadabhai Naoroji and participated as a councillor in forming the fourfold objectives of "Swaraj, Swadesh, Boycott, and national education".

In at the Surat session of Congress where moderates and extremists had a major showdown, he led along with extremists along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

The Congress split after this session. He was arrested again in May in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case. He was acquitted in the ensuing trial, following the murder of chief prosecution witness Naren Goswami within jail premises which subsequently led to the case against him collapsing.

Aurobindo was subsequently released after a year of isolated incarceration. Once out of the prison he started two new publications, Karmayogin in English and Dharma in Bengali.

He also delivered the Uttarpara Speech hinting at the transformation of his focus to spiritual matters. The British persecution continued because of his writings in his new journals and in April Aurobindo moved to Pondicherry, where Britain's secret police monitored his activities.

This sparked an outburst of public anger against the British, leading to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign by groups of revolutionaries that included Aurobindo.

In , Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford, a judge known for handing down particularly severe sentences against nationalists.

However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in another carriage and killed two British women, the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy.

Aurobindo was also arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail.

The trial of the Alipore Bomb Case lasted for a year, but eventually, he was acquitted on 6 May His defence counsel was Chittaranjan Das.

During this period in the Jail, his view of life was radically changed due to spiritual experiences and realizations. Consequently, his aim went far beyond the service and liberation of the country.

Aurobindo said he was "visited" by Vivekananda in the Alipore Jail: "It is a fact that I was hearing constantly the voice of Vivekananda speaking to me for a fortnight in the jail in my solitary meditation and felt his presence.

In his autobiographical notes, Aurobindo said he felt a vast sense of calmness when he first came back to India. He could not explain this and continued to have various such experiences from time to time.

He knew nothing of yoga at that time and started his practice of it without a teacher, except for some rules that he learned from Ganganath, a friend who was a disciple of Brahmananda.

Aurobindo was influenced by the guidance he got from the yogi, who had instructed Aurobindo to depend on an inner guide and any kind of external guru or guidance would not be required.

In Aurobindo withdrew himself from all political activities and went into hiding at Chandannagar in the house of Motilal Roy , while the British were trying to prosecute him for sedition on the basis of a signed article titled 'To My Countrymen', published in Karmayogin.

As Aurobindo disappeared from view, the warrant was held back and the prosecution postponed. Aurobindo manoeuvred the police into open action and a warrant was issued on 4 April , but the warrant could not be executed because on that date he had reached Pondicherry, then a French colony.

In Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo dedicated himself to his spiritual and philosophical pursuits. In , after four years of secluded yoga, he started a monthly philosophical magazine called Arya.

This ceased publication in Many years later, he revised some of these works before they were published in book form. At the beginning of his stay at Pondicherry, there were few followers, but with time their numbers grew, resulting in the formation of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in For some time afterwards, his main literary output was his voluminous correspondence with his disciples.

His letters, most of which were written in the s, numbered in the several thousand. Many were brief comments made in the margins of his disciple's notebooks in answer to their questions and reports of their spiritual practice—others extended to several pages of carefully composed explanations of practical aspects of his teachings.

These were later collected and published in book form in three volumes of Letters on Yoga. In the late s, he resumed work on a poem he had started earlier—he continued to expand and revise this poem for the rest of his life.

Sri Aurobindo died on 5 December Around 60, people attended to see his body resting peacefully. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , and the President Rajendra Prasad praised him for his contribution to Yogic philosophy and the independence movement.

National and international newspapers commemorated his death. Sri Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa b.

Alfassa , came to be known as The Mother. In her 20s she studied occultism with Max Theon. Along with her husband, Paul Richard, she went to Pondicherry on 29 March , [47] and finally settled there in Sri Aurobindo considered her his spiritual equal and collaborator.

After 24 November , when Sri Aurobindo retired into seclusion, he left it to her to plan, build and run the ashram, the community of disciples which had gathered around them.

Sometime later, when families with children joined the ashram, she established and supervised the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education with its experiments in the field of education.

When he died in , she continued their spiritual work, directed the ashram, and guided their disciples.

As such he argued that the end goal of spiritual practice could not merely be a liberation from the world into Samadhi but would also be that of descent of the Divine into the world in order to transform it into a Divine existence.

Thus, this constituted the purpose of Integral Yoga. Sri Aurobindo believed that Darwinism merely describes a phenomenon of the evolution of matter into life, but does not explain the reason behind it, while he finds life to be already present in matter, because all of existence is a manifestation of Brahman.

He argues that nature which he interpreted as divine has evolved life out of matter and the mind out of life.

All of existence, he argues, is attempting to manifest to the level of the supermind — that evolution had a purpose.

At the centre of Aurobindo's metaphysical system is the supermind, an intermediary power between the unmanifested Brahman and the manifested world.

In his writings, talks, and letters Sri Aurobindo has referred to several European philosophers with whose basic concepts he was familiar, commenting on their ideas and discussing the question of affinity to his own line of thought.

Thus he wrote a long essay on the Greek philosopher Heraclitus [62] and mentioned especially Plato , Plotinus , Nietzsche and Bergson as thinkers in whom he was interested because of their more intuitive approach.

After reading some chapters of The Life Divine , he is reported to have said that Sri Aurobindo's vision of evolution was basically the same as his own, though stated for Asian readers.

Several scholars have discovered significant similarities in the thought of Sri Aurobindo and Hegel. Steve Odin has discussed this subject comprehensively in a comparative study.

Although Sri Aurobindo was familiar with the most important lines of thought in Western philosophy, he did not acknowledge their influence on his own writings.

He assumes that the seers of the Upanishads had basically the same approach and gives some details of his vision of the past in a long passage in The Renaissance of India.

Even Buddhism with all its developments was only a "restatement" from a new standpoint and with fresh terms.

And, furthermore, the ideas of the Upanishads "can be rediscovered in much of the thought of Pythagoras and Plato and form the profound part of Neo-platonism and Gnosticism Sri Aurobindo's indebtedness to the Indian tradition also becomes obvious through his placing a large number of quotations from the Rig Veda , the Upanishads and the Bhagavadgita at the beginning of the chapters in The Life Divine , showing the connection of his own thought to Veda and Vedanta.

The Isha Upanishad is considered to be one of the most important and more accessible writings of Sri Aurobindo.

Iyengar quotes R. Mugali as stating that Sri Aurobindo might have obtained in this Upanishad the thought-seed which later grew into The Life Divine.

Sisir Kumar Maitra , who was a leading exponent of Sri Aurobindo's Philosophy, [82] has referred to the issue of external influences and written that Sri Aurobindo does not mention names, but "as one reads his books one cannot fail to notice how thorough is his grasp of the great Western philosophers of the present age This influence is there, very clearly visible, but Sri Aurobindo He has made full use of Western thought, but he has made use of it for the purpose of building up his own system Puligandla supports this viewpoint in his book Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy.

He describes Sri Aurobindo's philosophy as "an original synthesis of the Indian and Western traditions. The vision that powers the life divine of Aurobindo is none other than the Upanishadic vision of the unity of all existence.

Puligandla objects, "nowhere does Shankara say that the world is unreal and illusory. Quite the contrary, through the concept of sublation he teaches that the world is neither real nor unreal.

That this is indeed his teaching is further borne out by his distinction between lower and higher truths.

Sri Aurobindo's critique of Shankara is supported by U. He starts by summarizing what he considers to be Sri Aurobindo's most important contributions to philosophy and mentions at first his integral view of Reality.

Thus there is no opposition between the Absolute and its creative force in his system. Dubey proceeds to analyse the approach of the Shankarites and believes that they follow an inadequate kind of logic that does not do justice to the challenge of tackling the problem of the Absolute, which cannot be known by finite reason.

With the help of the finite reason, he says, "we are bound to determine the nature of reality as one or many, being or becoming. But Sri Aurobindo's Integral Advaitism reconciles all apparently different aspects of Existence in an all-embracing unity of the Absolute.

In concluding he notes critically "that Sri Aurobindo does not explain sufficiently the nature of the logic of the infinite. Sri Aurobindo was an Indian nationalist but is best known for his philosophy on human evolution and Integral Yoga.

His influence has been wide-ranging. In India, S. Maitra , Anilbaran Roy and D. Chattopadhyaya commented on Sri Aurobindo's work.

Writers on esotericism and traditional wisdom, such as Mircea Eliade , Paul Brunton , and Rene Guenon , all saw him as an authentic representative of the Indian spiritual tradition.

Bose writes "The illustrious example of Arabindo Ghosh looms large before my vision. I feel that I am ready to make the sacrifice which that example demands of me.

Karlheinz Stockhausen was heavily inspired by Satprem's writings about Sri Aurobindo during a week in May , a time at which the composer was undergoing a personal crisis and had found Sri Aurobindo's philosophies were relevant to his feelings.

After this experience, Stockhausen's music took a completely different turn, focusing on mysticism, that was to continue until the end of his career.

Jean Gebser acknowledged Sri Aurobindo's influence on his work and referred to him several times in his writings. After meeting Sri Aurobindo in Pondicherry in , the Danish author and artist Johannes Hohlenberg published one of the first Yoga titles in Europe and later on wrote two essays on Sri Aurobindo.

He also published extracts from The Life Divine in Danish translation. Thompson has called Sri Aurobindo's teaching on spirituality a "radical anarchism" and a "post-religious approach" and regards their work as having " The American philosopher Ken Wilber has called Sri Aurobindo "India's greatest modern philosopher sage" [] and has integrated some of his ideas into his philosophical vision.

Wilber's interpretation of Aurobindo has been criticised by Rod Hemsell. The following authors, disciples and organisations trace their intellectual heritage back to, or have in some measure been influenced by, Sri Aurobindo and The Mother.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist. Mrinalini Devi m. The Spirit shall look out through Matter's gaze.

And Matter shall reveal the Spirit's face. Political career. Speeches and books. Integral yoga Intermediate zone Supermind.

Matrimandir Pondicherry. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Auroville. The Mother Champaklal N. Pandit P. Bhattacharya A. Purani D. Journals and Forums.

Arya Mother India Collaboration. Teachers Acharyas. Adi Shankara. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Tantra Shakta. Major texts.

Main article: Political history of Sri Aurobindo. See also: Anushilan Samiti. Main article: Integral yoga. Main article: Supermind Integral yoga.

Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram. Collected Poems. Collected Plays and Stories. Records of Yoga. Vedic and Philological Studies.

The Secrets of the Veda. Hymns to the Mystic Fire. Isha Upanishad. Kena and Other Upanishads. Essays on the Gita.

The Life Divine. The Synthesis of Yoga. The Future Poetry. Letters on Poetry and Art Letters on Yoga.

Letters on Himself and the Ashram. Barindra was born in England in January Aurobindo was recorded in the census as Aravinda Ghose, as he was also by the University of Cambridge.

Bengal: change and continuity, Issues 16— Aurobindo's father, Dr. Ghose had his medical training in Edinburgh It did not catch on at that time.

Abroad, his death was noted by newspapers in London, Paris and New York. A writer in the Manchester Guardian called him 'the most massive philosophical thinker that modern India has produced.

New York: Atria books.

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